Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education
The Department of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension Education was established in the year 1999 in the College of Veterinary Sciences, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar in keeping with the recommendation of Veterinary Council of India.
The department has five sanctioned faculty positions and an equal number of support staff. Presently, there are two Professors, one Associate Professor and one Assistant Professor in the department. The department has a well equipped Conference hall, one AV laboratory and one committee room. All these facilities are well equipped with modern audio-visual and multimedia tools. The department also has a lecture room with multimedia facilities. The budgetary provisions of the department are to the tune of Rs 60 lakhs per annum.
The department offers undergraduate courses and PG programmes (both MVSc and Ph. D) in the field of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension Education. The department is actively engaged in conducting applied and basic research in the field of Animal Husbandry extension and development. Besides this, the department organizes different extension programmes for livestock farmers of the state like kisan goshthis, camps, etc. The department has published a lot of farm literature in both English and vernacular language for the benefit of farming community.
Head of the Department :
Phone (O): 01662-256127
|Sh. Hemant Mehta
|Sh. Chandan Singh
||Sr. Lab. Assistant
- Heifer management, fodder enrichment, forage farming, male castration, correct method of milking, pregnancy diagnosis, regular check up during pregnancy etc. are the areas deserving special attention in the regular extension efforts.
- Majority of rural women had played active role in making decisions like choice of animals and increase/decrease of animals on the farms. The activities where women had played active role include care and weaning of calves, feeding of concentrates, utilization of milk products, etc.
- About 87 percent of buffaloes in Hisar and 81 percent in Karnal district were in first to fourth order of lactations. Nearly 31 percent of the total cross-bred cows maintained by the sample households were in second and third order of lactation each in Hisar district. In Karnal district highest numbers of crossbred cows i.e. 33.85 percent of the total crossbred cows were in third order of lactation.
- On an average about 48 and 58 per cent of the total milk produced was sold as fresh milk in Hisar and Karnal district, respectively. Majority of the employment generated was family labour which decreased with increase in herd size. Out of the total human labour generated, proportion of female labour employment was more than male members.
- On an average in case of small herd size group per day 7.34 hrs of human labour was generated on various animal husbandry activities in Hisar district. The human labour employment generated on medium and large herd size groups was 10.02 and 14.25 hrs with overall average of 10.38 hrs/day. In Karnal district on an average per day 6.43 hrs of human labour were generated on small and 9.24, 13.08 and 9.20 hours on medium, large and overall herd size groups.
- Farmers of Hisar perceived feeding constraints as most serious whereas the farmers of Karnal considered healthcare constraints as most serious indicating significant differences perhaps owing to agro-climatic variations. Almost all the farmers across different categories considered high cost of treatment as serious thus underlining the need to develop low cost treatment regimens.
- In a study in selected districts of state it was observed that most of the respondents had more knowledge about gestation period of buffalo, balanced ration, cleanliness of buffalo shed and important symptoms of various diseases whereas poor knowledge was recorded about buffalo breeding, mineral mixture, disinfestations of buffalo shed before calving and precautions of disposal of diseased dead buffalo. Higher adoption was observed in case of proper time of A.I., Chaffing of green fodder and timely vaccination of F.M.D. While low adoption was found about checking of buffalo during pregnancy, feeding of prepared hay, practicing weaning of buffalo calves and applying of pesticides for prevention of ticks and mites. Education, socio economic status, extension contact, mass media exposure, opinion leadership, risk orientation, economic motivation and attitude of buffalo owners were found to have positive and significant correlation in respect of knowledge, adoption, and training needs, whereas majority of independent variables did not exhibit their significant role in case of perceived constraints in adoption of recommended buffalo husbandry practices.
- A study was conducted in Jind district of Haryana state in which it was found that most of the respondents were regularly visiting the progressive farmers, superintendents of livestock, veterinary assistant surgeon (VAS) and field assistants for information. Among the channels, milk producers’ cooperative, panchayat, and farmers’ association were mostly used. Significant proportions of dairy farmers were found to evaluate the information by discussing with the progressive farmers, family members and friends/neighbours before adoption. On the whole, farmers generally considered profitability for appraisal of new information. Further, they placed the highest credibility towards university scientist, VAS, family members, KVK, demonstration and progressive farmers. The background variables like SES, occupation, education, extension contact, mass media exposure, risk orientation and cosmopoliteness- localiteness had positive and significant correlation with the communication behaviour and source credibility except age.
- In a study on effectiveness of communication media in transfer of buffalo husbandry practices it was seen that the mean gain in farm women’s knowledge about breeding practices was maximum through visuals plus discussion (21.81%) followed by printed material plus discussion (20.72%), audio plus discussion (16.04%) and lecture plus discussion (14.81%). Based on the study it can be concluded that Visuals plus discussion emerged as most effective method whereas the lecture plus discussion was found rather poor method for transfer of buffalo husbandry practices.
- In a study on training need assessment of veterinary surgeons, the training needs were identified on five major areas of buffalo husbandry, namely, veterinary diagnostics and therapeutics; veterinary surgery and radiology; animal reproduction, gynaecology & obstetrics; veterinary laboratory diagnostics; and animal science. It was found that the majority of the veterinary surgeons perceived moderate level of training needs in all five major areas of buffalo husbandry. Furthermore, they prioritized, in descending order of priority, the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders & treatment of common infectious diseases; repair of fracture cases; caesarean section; haematology & interpretation of results; and judging of buffaloes as the most needed sub-areas amongst all the five major areas. Treatment of common poisonings; radiological & ultrasonic diagnostic techniques; examination & evaluation of semen; collection & processing of specimens for diagnosis of viral diseases; bacterial culture & primary identification of bacteria; and milk fraudulent tests were perceived as the least needed training areas in buffalo husbandry.
- The study which was conducted in Hisar division regarding scientific poultry production technologies revealed that higher knowledge was seen about the practices namely location of shed, use of deep litter system, condition of deep litter, type of feed to be provided, feeding of supplements, use of antibiotics during early life of chicks, favorability to vaccination of birds, disinfection of broiler shed and utilization of used litter (100% each) whereas low knowledge was recorded about length of broiler shed, indication of poor ventilation, use of potassium permanganate, amount of energy in starter and finisher, testing of water, important signs of gout and advantages of vaccination (<47.2%). Higher adoption was recorded in case of proper ventilation in the shed, provide adequate feed and water, heating and cooling facilities, use of feeder and waterer, balanced/ready made feed, feed according to age, protection of birds against cold and hot, vaccination against IBD and keeping the litter dry (>98.4%). While low adoption was found about providing roofs according to seasons, daily rack the litter in deep litter system, provide crumbs/pellet feed and vaccination against Newcastle disease (<76%). The study further revealed that most of the respondents perceived high cost of day old chicks and feeds, inadequate knowledge about government services, facilities and high cost of treatment and non-remunerative price of broiler as ‘very serious’ constraints. In all the major aspects of broiler production, farming experience, flock size, total income, mass media exposure, sources of information, risk orientation and economic motivation had positive and direst effect on knowledge, adoption and constraints perceived. Maximum substantial indirect effect was seen from total income followed by farming experience and risk orientation in case of knowledge while flock size, farming experience and risk orientation with respect to adoption and total income, broiler income and mass media exposure in case of constraints perceived.
- Study regarding content analysis and reading behaviour of livestock and poultry news covered by Hindi dailies revealed that news related to animal health occupied first rank having maximum space followed by animal production. Among the sub-categories of animal health news, Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology occupied maximum space (26.10%) followed by Preventive Measures (19.39%). Not single news related to Veterinary Microbiology and Veterinary Pharmacology appeared in the selected dailies. Among sub-categories of animal production, news on Livestock Production and Management had occupied maximum space in both the selected Hindi. Under Govt. policy, 51.24 and 48.29 per cent of the total space were covered by the news related to Animal Husbandry Extension Education (training, demonstration, kissan mela) in Dainik Jagran and Dainik Bhaskar, respectively. Maximum emphasis has been either on state level or districts level news. Space covered for publication of bovine news was found highest (61.8%), followed by wildlife (17.17%), canine (6.69%) and poultry (6.09 %). On the basis of placement, two-third of the news related to animal husbandry was published on the upper half of the paper. The maximum space as well as number of news in both the selected dailies were contributed by their respective press correspondents, while other important sources contributing animal husbandry news were HAU (9.75%), state dept. of animal husbandry and dairying (4.55%), NDRI (4.35%) etc. It is also reported that 55.0, 23.58 and 21.42 per cent of respondents had medium, high and low level of reading behavior, respectively. 65 per cent of the respondents were reading and subscribing the newspaper from last four years. Higher percentage of the respondents read the newspapers partially (47.86%) followed by completely (45%) and 74.29 per cent of total respondents preferred to read news related to animal health whereas 89.29 per cent of respondents had exchanged the information with other. Overall pictures highlighted that, majority of respondents read newspapers in morning (45%), daily (72.14), silently (89.28%) and in sitting posture (70%). 69.29 per cent of respondents belonged to low level of motivational factors while 70 per cent of them had medium level of promotional factors. Further study revealed that 75 per cent of respondents had low and remaining 25 per cent of them were having medium level of hindering factors. Item wise factors analyses of all 140 respondents revealed that 95.5 per cent of farmers motivated by ‘themselves’, while 62.5 per cent of the farmers were promoted through ‘latest information’ obtained related to animal husbandry. The farmers were perceived ‘impracticable massages’ (65%) as first and the most important hindering factors responsible for affecting reading behaviors. Education, herd size, total income, place of reading, extension contact and mass media exposure showed positive and significant correlation with reading behaviors of farmers. However, age of the farmers exhibited negative and significant relationship. Out of the twelve antecedent variables, four variables namely; education, place of reading, extension contacts and family structures had emerged as potential contributors towards the overall reading behaviors of respondents.
- A study to compare the carbon footprint of milk produced in smallholder and commercial buffalo farms in Hisar district of Haryana, using life cycle assessment approach was conducted. International standard organization prescribed LCA methodology was adopted. On-farm CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and emissions during fodder cultivation for lactating buffaloes were calculated using Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) prescribed methodology. Carbon footprints of milk produced in both the farms were similar with the values being 2.47 CO₂ -eq./lt. and 2.36 CO₂ -eq./ lt of milk for rural smallholder and commercial farms when lactating buffaloes alone were considered. At the herd level, these values increased to 3.54 and 4.53 kg CO₂ –eq./ litre of milk, respectively for rural smallholder and commercial farms. CH₄ from enteric fermentation was found as the largest contributor to GHG emissions with the contribution being nearly 50%.
- A study on the performance of milk cooperatives was conducted in Haryana state. A majority of respondents were unaware of social, economic and overall role of primary cooperative society. The societies were not following the principles of cooperatives like election, regular meeting, social objectives, etc. Surprisingly, the members were largely unaware about the finances of the societies. The staff perceived major constraints as work burden and high responsibility, lack of technical training, poor promotional avenues and inadequate salary/remuneration.
A study was conducted in Hisar district of Haryana state to assess the extent of gender inequality in Animal Husbandry. Adopting a perspective of personal empowerment, the study was attempted with the core idea being the capability of rural women to practice animal husbandry on their own. The roles appeared to be strictly gender demarcated. Although a majority of respondents reportedly received money from the sale of milk and milk products, yet when it came to receipt of money from the sale of animals the percentage was much lower. None of the women respondents reported to be a beneficiary of any Animal Husbandry Development programme. It was concluded that patriarchal system is prevalent and is facilitating dominance & control of men over the animal resources in rural areas.
Post graduate students/ Research assistants/ Senior research fellows
Dr. Ekta Rani
Dr. Aditya Kumari
Dr. Rakesh Kumar
Dr. Anju Bala
Dr. Kamal Kumar 2021V26D
Dr. Umesh Kumar
Dr. Mohit 2021V14M
Dr. Mukul Lohan 2021V15M
Dr. Pradeep Kumar 2021V16M
Ongoing and completed projects
- An economic analysis of cattle and buffalo husbandry in Haryana – An ICAR funded (Ad-hoc AP Cess Fund) project.
- Problems and prospects of buffalo husbandry technology in Haryana.
- Communication methods for effective transfer of animal husbandry technologies.
- Transfer and adoption of animal husbandry technologies: A constraints analysis.
- Training needs of field veterinarians and farmers in adoption of veterinary and animal sciences technologies.
- Communication behaviours of dairy farmers.
- Job productivity of Veterinary Surgeons in Haryana.
- Knowledge and adoption of broiler farmers about scientific poultry production technology.
- Content analysis and breeding behaviour of farmers regarding livestock and poultry news covered by Hindi Dailies
- Problems and prospects of scientific Sheep Husbandry in Western Haryana.
- Constraints affecting mixed farming system in Haryana.
- An Analytical Study of Milk Marketing Cooperatives in Haryana
- Carbon footprint analysis of buffalo milk production at organized and village level farm using life cycle assessment approach
- Zoonoses Risk –Perception of Dairy Farmers of Haryana
- Satisfaction Level of Pet Dog Owners About Clinical Service of Veterinary Clinical Complex, LUVAS
- Entrepreneurial intentions amongst students of Veterinary Sciences
- Sustainability of Livestock Production Systems in Haryana
- Carbon and water footprint analysis of cattle milk
- Knowledge and adoption of scientific clean milk production practices
- Green fodder production and feeding practices
- Knowledge and attitude of dairy farmers towards use of mineral mixture